The Sabbaths of the Torah which were shadows of things to come
Colossians 2:16-17 EMTV
(16) Therefore do not let anyone judge you in food or in drink, or regarding a festival or of a new moon or of sabbaths, (17) which are a shadow of things to come, but the body is of Christ.
There are 5 festivals in addition to the rest from work of the seventh day where cessation from work was obligated
[Sabbath only implies no servile work]
We read in Leviticus 23, the various occasions when God called off work for sabbaths
The seventh day sabbath
The Passover festival with any day 2 sabbaths, on the 14th and the 22nd of the 1st month
The festival of the firstfruits was on a Sunday (which is after the Sabbath) but does not call for a rest. But, the Sunday of the firstfruits is listed among the feasts of Jehovah which almost always call for holy convocations and a cessation from work.
From that Sunday of the firstfruits, the Jews were to count seven Sabbaths adding to 49 days to the last Sabbath and the 50th day, necessarily a Sunday, was a festival with a holy convocation.
Pentecostal Sunday was a Jewish Sabbath (rest) day with a holy convocation
The 50th day festival after the counting of the seven sabbaths, Pentecostal day, which falls always a Sunday was also a sabbath per Leviticus 23:21, with a holy convocation
The Feast of the 7 Sabbaths were to be celebrated in Jerusalem not in Israel, as almost if not all the feasts. Outside of Jerusalem, or none of the ordinances were allowed to be carried out. That was why the Jews went to Jerusalem to observe the ordinances. The observance of the seventh day Sabbath was not restricted to only Jerusalem or Israel. That is one of the reason Paul was not calling for its abolishment.
Note that the Pentecostal day, even though it was a Sabbath, was a day to rejoice. That is besides not working, the Jews were permitted to carry on activities to enjoy themselves.
The festival of trumpets with 1 any day sabbath with a holy convocation on the 1st of the 7th month
The day of atonement with 1 any day sabbath on the 10th day (according to verse 32, from the 9th in the evening until the next evening of the 10th) of the 7th month (verses 27, 32).
The festival of the booths or tabernacles on the 15th of the 7th month, with any day 2 sabbaths, was 7 days long.
The feast of tabernacles or booths was instituted as days for everyone to rejoice
The 1st day, that is the 15th of the 7th month, was a Sabbath day with a holy convocation.
The 8th day, that is the 22nd of the 7th month, was a Sabbath day with a holy convocation
The feast was to be observed all over Israel
The Law was to be read to all every 7 years during the festivities of the Tabernacles
The 7th day of the week is 1 Sabbath
The Passover week had 2 Sabbaths
The Sunday Pentecostal day was 1 Sabbath
The festival of the trumpets was 1 sabbath
The day of atonement was 1 Sabbath
The feast of booths or tabernacles had 2 Sabbaths
Thus, the Jews were obligated to keep a total of 8 sabbaths (no servile work to be done). During those days of rest, they were to carry out ceremonial activities including animal sacrifices among other things. Those Sabbath (rest) days (except the seventh day sabbath and Pentecostal day) could fall on any day of the week, even on the 7th day, according to the dates of the chosen months, unless the Jews decided otherwise for their convenience in tweaking their months.
It is worth noting that the seventh day rest, being unique, even though it made the list of Leviticus 23, does not call for any accompanying ceremonial ordinances, not having ever been a shadow.
Therefore, the seventh day rest is not included in Colossians 2:16-17 as Sabbaths fulfilled by the sacrifice and offering of the body of Jesus.
the Sunday Pentecostal Sabbath
As you might have realized 1 of the Sabbath days of the feasts of Leviticus 23 fell on Sundays, the 50th day after the counting of 7 Sabbaths.
Therefore, if the Sabbatical nature of the day of Pentecost floated around as the reason to have called for Sunday as a Sabbath day, the verses Colossians 2:16-17 of the New Testament that speak of the ordinances that were but shadows to come (thus obsolete), invalidate any attempt to make Sunday a replacement for Saturday in term of Sabbath (rest).
As it is written:
because the word of God is used to
The Jewish Months and the sabbaths of shadow
In researching the sabbaths of the Scriptures in order to fully understand the abolishment of sabbaths, festival, or new moon advocated in Colossians 2:16-17 because those ordinances were shadows of things to come, you may notice that there are at least 2 ordinances that always fall on a Sunday and were considered sabbath day because servile work in them was forbidden. Moreover, in each of those sabbaths, except the sabbath of the seventh day, there were ceremonial activities to be carried in the Temple. The Temple is no more, so, besides being shadows and agricultural, those ordinances cannot be performed legally according to Moses. There is no guidance in the Scripture for the resurgence of the Temple with its ceremonial activities after its final destruction.
The seventh day Sabbath is not within the scope of Colossians 2:16-17
All the teachings against the observance of the Law as obsolete have only one target the abolishment of the seventh day and its requirements. However, the biblical authority to discard the seventh day is lacking because the biblical support exhibited against the seventh day has nothing to do with with the seventh day. The seventh day was instituted from the creation of our life, independent of any nation or anything that was a shadow to come.
The effort is to make Sunday instead of established Saturday the day of worship. Unfortunately, the word "sabbaths", which is used for the so-called abolishment of the Saturday sabbath in the New Testament, also includes Sunday as a sabbath day. Therefore, if the passages do call for abolishing sabbaths, not a day, even Sunday sabbath can be considered because all the days of the week had become a temporary candidate to host a day of Sabbath (rest).